By Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik
An quintessential shop of knowledge at the English language, written by way of many of the best-known grammarians on the earth.
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Extra resources for A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language
33 34 Heiko Narrog The proposal made here, presented in the last row of Table 1, is to acknowledge three types of changes that form part of a larger tendency that I wish to label as ‘speech-act orientation’ (rather than simply ‘speaker-orientation’ in a broad sense, as I did previously). Furthermore, I am suggesting to keep these three kinds of changes apart and treat them on an equal basis, at least until their mutual relationship is sufficiently clarified. 3 The place for textual/discourse-orientation One likely reason for the backgrounding of the ‘textual’ element in Traugott’s writing on (inter)subjectification is that its place in relation to subjectification and intersubjectification became uncertain.
But Verhagen’s (2005, 2007) notion of intersubjectivity has not yet been explored in its potential diachronic dimension, and Nuyts’s (2001a, b) concept of intersubjectivity does not lend itself easily to such a dimension (but see Nuyts this issue), since ‘intersubjectification’ * I wish to thank the editors for their kind invitation and support throughout the writing process. Furthermore, two anonymous reviewers helped me greatly to improve my paper. 30 Heiko Narrog in Nuyts’s sense would be the opposite of subjectification, and there is general consensus that subjectification is a well-attested and unidirectional tendency in semantic change.
Thus it is a matter of interpretation whether such circumstantial readings are already viewed as deontic. In any case, it appears that both the deontic and epistemic reading arose from the circumstantial reading. The first ‘concessive’ use is given by Visser for the late 14th Beyond intersubjectification century (Chaucer). Interestingly, though, he also gives a possible lone forerunner from Old English, a juxtaposition of two clauses that can be rendered as ‘Heaven and earth may die/pass away; my word will never die’ (Heofon ond eorðe mæg gewitan, min word næfre ne gewitað (Blickl.