Download A French-English grammar : a contrastive grammar on by Morris Salkoff PDF

By Morris Salkoff

1. desk of symbols, pxi; 2. Preface, pxiii; three. 1. advent, p1; four. 2. significant sentence buildings; the verb; the item, p25; five. three. The Noun word, p119; 6. four. Adjuncts, p167; 7. five. Conclusions; functions, p313; eight. References, p335; nine. Index, p339

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Additional resources for A French-English grammar : a contrastive grammar on translational principles

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Examples of both are given here. In these cases, the translation rules can be expressed as a function of the sub-classes of the categories appearing in them. Many semantic and translational sub-classes of the major French grammatical categories must be defined to handle such cases, both in the comparative grammar and in the French-English transfer lexicon. These semantic sub-classes are then used to express the translational relations as formal rules. Whether all of these semantic sub-classes can be defined operationally has yet to be determined.

The progressive on the latter yields the form is being indignant, which does not mean the same as est en train de s'indigner; rather, en train de s'indigner must be translated with the aspectual become together with the progressive tense. The translation of être en train de V as is beginning to V used above to translate est en train de s'apercevoir is applicable to many English verbs that cannot appear in the progressive present: (4)e Paul est en train d'accepter l'obligation de partir tôt le matin → Paul is beginning to accept the obligation of leaving early in the morning f Max est en train de comprendre que Marie ne l'aimera jamais → Max is beginning to understand that Marie will never love him There are a few English verbs which usually, or only, appear in the progressive tense (in a principal clause) when the object is the infinitive complement.

When an Obj tV Sbj sentence is conjoined to a Sbj tV Obj sentence, the verb in Obj tV Sbj may be deleted if it is the same as that of the Sbj tV Obj sentence, leaving only Obj Sbj. The inverted sequence Obj Sbj is the chiasmus with verb deletion. vigorous). , sembler(seem),paraître (appear), rester {remain), etc. (ii) tV Obj Sbj order. This inversion is observed both in a principal and a subordinate clause. In a main clause, this yields the following kinds of sentences: (ll)a Figurait enfin sur cette liste les noms des victimes → The names of the victims appeared at last on that list b Sont dans ce cas les pays suivants → The following countries are in this position c Dès lors se pose à l'étudiant le problème du logement → From that moment the problem of lodgings arises for the student Here too the Sbj tV Obj order is preferable in English.

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