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By Rigomar Rieger

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The specific -+ karyotype comprising the b. n. is the "basikaryotype" (Sinoto & Sato 1940). basikaryotype (Sinoto & Sato 1940) - -+ basic number. B-chromosome (Randolph 1928) - any chromosome of a heterogeneous category of -+ chromosomes (also called supernumerary, accessory or 3* 35 behavior flexibility extra chromosomes) present in many species of both plants and animals which differ in their behavior from normal or A-chromosomes in the following characteristics (some of them may be missing in the special case under observation): 1.

The chromatid type including all three chromosomes is shown on the left; the chromosome type on the right shows two of the three chromosomes joined to form a dicentric chromosome. Possible interconversion of the two types indicated by arrows (modified after Faberge 1958). 39 breeding value 1. Those which affect the ability of particular gametes to fuse or parents to mate, and 2. those which affect their probability within the limits set by the first. The variables under I. comprise an aspect of the b.

The eukaryotic cell (Chatton 1925) (Fig. 4) may be understood as a three-phase system (Morrison I966); one phase is represented by the nucleo-cytoplasmic matrix in which --+ nucleoplasm and cytoplasm have continuity via the pores of the --+ nuclear envelope. The second phase is formed by the membraneous organelles of the cell and the third consists of the contents of these membrane-enclosed structures. Membranes (--+ unit membrane) subdivide the cells of eukaryotes into the two major compartments, nucleus and cytoplasm, and the cytoplasm into a system of interconnected cavities and various separate compartments.

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