By Gabriella Mazzon
Negation is likely one of the major capabilities in human communication.A heritage of English Negation is the 1st booklet to examine English negation over the total of its documented background, utilizing a large database and obtainable terminology.
After an introductory bankruptcy, the booklet analyses proof from the complete pattern of outdated English files to be had, and from a number of center English and Renaissance files, displaying that the diversity of types used at any unmarried level is wider, and the speed in their swap significantly speedier, than formerly in general assumed.
The publication strikes directly to evaluate present formalised bills of the location in smooth English, tracing the alterations in ideas for expressing negation that experience intervened because the earliest documented historical past of the language. because the common is just one number of a language, it additionally surveys the technique of negation utilized in a few non-standard and dialectal types of English. The publication concludes with a glance at particularly lately born languages corresponding to Pidgins and Creoles, to enquire the measure of naturalness of the rules that rule the expression of English negation.
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Extra resources for A History of English Negation
There are of course also other ways in which this difference can surface formally. In modern German, for instance, there is a special adversative connector sondern, which is used instead of the more common aber when a special or constituent negative is employed contrastively: Hans if3t nicht Fisch, sondern (*aber) Fleisch ('Hans does not eat fish, but meat'). 2. NPis have been defined as 'expressions whose distribution in limited to environ ments containing a commanding overt or incorporated negative', which 'can only appear felicitously within the scope of negation' (Horn 1989: 49, 157).
This indicator should not be overlooked, since it may suggest that some markers of negation (such as the NEG2 pattern, the Incorporation of some forms, and Neg-Concord, especially when applied to coordinators) were felt as 'normal' or 'regular' in the scribe's variety of English, so that their addition was either 'auto matic' or, if intentional, was due to the fact that a negative clause might have been felt as 'incomplete' without such markers. However tempting this line of reasoning, nevertheless it should not be brought to extremes, since, as mentioned, these cases of non-adherence to the original are not exceedingly numerous.
88B, a. 1 1 35) 'dared no man say to him nothing but good' (28) Ne se unclcene gcest leore on oa stowe, ac . . (S. 44) 'Not the evil spirit pass through ['come', subjunctive] that place, but . . ' The observation that there is much more variation in OE negation than can be expressed by the 'ne + V' formula will be further proved in the next sections. 2. Va riation i n O l d E n g l ish Negation Most contributions on OE and ME negation identify rather straightfor wardly the former stage as NEGl and the latter as NEG2-to-NEG3, thus tracing a development whereby post-verbal 'reinforcement' of negation and Neg-Concord became more widespread and then nearly obligatory, later giving way to a new post-verbal main negator (Strang 1 970; Mitchell and Robinson 1986; Denison 1 993a).