By R. D'Andrade
This learn analyzes American, Vietnamese, and eastern own values, trying to know how it may be ethnographers locate huge alterations in values among cultures, but empirical surveys locate rather small alterations in own values among cultures. D’Andrade argues that individuals reside in certain worth worlds; the realm of private values and the realm of institutionalized values. Assessing those worth worlds, D’Andrade is ready to clarify the distinction among ethnography and survey info, whereas making important statement on American, Vietnamese, and jap tradition. With perception and precision, this booklet contributes to the $64000 debate that the tradition, brain, and Society sequence has initiated.
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Additional resources for A Study of Personal and Cultural Values: American, Japanese, and Vietnamese (Culture, Mind and Society)
If a scale, with repeated applications, gives the same measurements, the scale is reliable, and if a scale is reliable logic says it must be measuring something, because only if it were measuring something could it produce the same results more than once. What it measures may not be what one thinks it measures (the issue of exactly what is being measured is a question of validity). For questionnaire data, there are different ways to measure reliability. The most direct of these is to give the same questionnaire to the same persons more than once—test-retest reliability, as it is called.
However, the major problem that emerged was simply the results. In chapters 4 and 5 these results are presented at length. Suffice it to say here that (1) only three dimensions were discovered; (2) no culturally unique dimensions were discovered; (3) the differences between the Americans, the Vietnamese, and the Japanese were very much smaller than expected. The most dissonant finding was the small size of the differences between societies. 34 of a standard deviation (computed from d scores for all pairs of societies for all 328 items).
To investigate the organization of the data at a more abstract level, a principal components analysis was carried out on a correlation matrix based on the data from 60 American, 60 Japanese, and 60 Vietnamese respondents. The data from each society was standardized by individual and by value item, insuring that correlations between items are not increased by societal differences in value profiles. Leung and Bond (1998) call this operation “deculturing” the data. To check, a second principal components analysis was carried out on undercultured data.