By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This functional instruction manual brings jointly quite a lot of bibliographic info on irregular pressures and provides the sensible event of the authors and diverse specialists inside of Elf-Aquitaine. basically destined for each day use by means of subsurface geologists and drilling engineers at any place they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes many of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the tools on hand for his or her prediction, detection and assessment. it's going to even be necessary to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference guide.
checklist of primary Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain ideas
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain assessment
five. precis and total Conclusions - aid Chart
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Additional info for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
At very great depth and for fairly plastic rocks such as salt or marl, stresses tend to equalize and conditions probably become close to isotropic. This hypothesis was proposed by Heim towards the end of last century (1878). It is false, however, to claim that horizontal stresses at depths shallower than 1 OOO m are greater than the vertical stress and that the reverse is true below that depth, because every possibility can be encountered. This purely intellectual concept of stress has been introduced to give an idea of the internal loads to which a body of rock will be subjected by the forces imposed upon it, and to compare them with the maximum loads it can undergo without excessive fracturing or deformation.
In practice it is advisable to establish normal compaction trends on at least a regional basis. 2. 1. 1). In accordance with the laws of hydrodynamics such movements are away from zones of high potential towards areas of lower potential. In the Pressure f I Pressure \ t Hydrostatic pressure \ Abnormal Dressure \ I a b Fig. 38. 64 - Pressure changes - Transition zone.
It thus seems possible that in certain sedimentary basins fluid flows generated by compaction and gravity may be either accentuated or attenuated by the effects of osmosis or reverse osmosis. CONCLUSION Although laboratory tests have proven that osmotic effects are real, the evidence for their existence in nature is far less certain. It will be noted that laboratory trials used only thin membranes of pure clay and strongly contrasting saline solutions. These cannot easily be extrapolated to the geological environment.