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E. a copy of the surface form of the singular) and arrive at a constraint ranking where intervocalic voicing (INTER-V-VOICE) dominates the faithfulness constraint IDENT-IO[voice]. t´n], as illustrated in tableau (20): THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES (20) Input: /pEt-´n/ a. b. d´n *Voiced-Coda Inter-V-Voice 43 IDENT-IO[voice] *! * As noted in Chapter 1, such erroneous forms are attested for Dutch children. Kager (1999a) uses a ‘constraint demotion’ algorithm or CDA (Tesar & Smolensky 1998; 2000, Tesar 1996), and shows that it is theoretically possible to learn the correct grammar and underlying form, provided that the learner can go back and forth between estimating the underlying forms and estimating the constraint ranking.

G. Chomsky & Halle 1968, Halle & Mohanan 1985, Kenstowicz 1994) is based on the corresponding notion that the child needs to acquire the abstract adult phonological system, aided by universal principles. Systematic regularities or linguistically significant generalisations are distinguished from idiosyncratic features of a language. Thus, the grammar (containing rules) needs to be separate from the lexicon, and predictable information (which can be computed by rules) is not present in lexical representations.

He argued that a (voicing) alternation is not simply imitated by the child but develops ‘independently’ (Baudouin de Courtenay 1895: 209). 25 Although MacWhinney (1978:71) reports that English children may voice stem-final consonants, such as with the non-word /trok/ + /z/ > /trogz/, indicating that faithfulness to the plural allomorph may sometimes be more important than stem faithfulness. 36 CHAPTER 2 related problem was the duplication between static phonology (phonotactic constraints on lexical shape) and dynamic phonology or alternations (Sommerstein 1974, Kenstowicz & Kisseberth 1977, Goldsmith 1993).

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