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Since only one lens is involved, the nodal point of the lens is the aperture stop center. A chief ray is a special case of a meridional ray and is in the tangential plane. A chief ray is also called a principal ray. The chief ray is often used in raytracing. 4 Marginal Ray A marginal ray is another special meridional ray that originates from the point where the object and the optical axis across and touches the edge of the aperture stop. A marginal ray is also in the tangential plane. 22 shows a marginal ray by the dash lines.

5. 4 THIN LENS EQUATION Thin lens equation is the most widely used approximated analytical tool for analyzing the effects of a lens on rays passing through the lens. Thin lens equation can significantly simplify the analytical process and the results are accurate enough in many cases. 1 Sign Conventions Many optical parameters are spatial parameters. They not only have values, but also have orientations or directions. For example, a positive lens and a negative lens may have the same radii of the surface curvature, but they affect the rays very differently, because their surface curvatures have different orientations.

22 shows that the longitudinal magnification is not 28 Lens Design proportional to the lateral magnification. When |MLa| ≠ 1, the height to width ratio of the image is different from the height to width ratio of the object. For |MLa| > 1, the image is fatter than the object. For |MLa| < 1, the image is thinner than the object. 24 roughly show such a characteristics. 22 is effective only for Δo ≪ f. 18. 23) Longitudinal magnification is also called axial magnification. 23 shows that different longitudinal portions of an object have different lateral magnifications.

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