By Richard Twyman
This e-book emphasises the unifying rules and mechanisms of molecular biology, with common use of tables and containers to summarise experimental facts and gene and protein capabilities.
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Extra resources for Advanced molecular biology: a concise reference
G. g. cell division). Cell division must be coordinated with growth DNA andreplication so that cell size and DNA content remain constant. The cell cycle comprises nuclear a or chromosomal cycle(DNA replication and partition) and a cytoplasmic or cell division cycle (doubling and division of cytoplasmic components, which in eukaryotes includes the organelles). The DNA is considered separately from other cell contents because it is usually present in onlyorone two copies per vegetative cell, and its replication and segregation must therefore be precisely controlled.
In animals, alternative cyclins may be differentially expressed in different cell types, which would facilitate the uniqueaspects of cellcycle control in distinct differentiatedcells. There are generally three types of cyclin in all organisms: the G1 cyclins which regulate the GI-S transition, the S-phase cyclins which are required for DNA replication, and the M-phase cyclins which are required for mitosis. M-phase cyclins include the S. cerevisiae CLB cyclins, the vertebrate A- a n d B t y p ecyclins and theS.
Genes encoding similar kinases were subsequently isolated from vertebrates, and these could restore wild-type cell cycle function to yeast cdc mutants. Significantly, the Xenopus homolog of CDC28/Cdc2 was foundto be a component of MPF. The kinaseswere foundto be present constitutively in the nucleus, but tocontrol cell cycletransitions their activity would have to oscillate. An explanation for their periodic activity came from the study of sea urchin eggs, wherein were discovered a family of molecules whose synthesis and activity oscillated with the cell cycle.