By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)
Biological regulate is without doubt one of the so much promising tools for keep an eye on of pests (including vectors), illnesses and weeds. during this booklet ecological and societal elements are for the 1st time taken care of jointly. In an ecological procedure the purpose is to guage the importance of sure organic houses like biodiversity and traditional habitats. additionally, it is very important see organic regulate from an natural (or ecological) farming standpoint. In a societal procedure phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are known as major for organic creation and human welfare.
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Additional info for An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control
Classical biocontrol measures are not specifically linked to organic agriculture but are also part of an organic plant protection strategy. However, knowledge on biocontrol strategies in apple production is still limited and for the key diseases, such as apple scab and mildew, no biocontrol solutions are on the market yet. 5. 1. Outline of strategies for disease and parasite control in organic animal husbandry Until recently, organic animal husbandry has relied largely on conventional veterinary approaches for the control of diseases and parasites.
Webster, J. P. G. and Bowles, R. G. 1996. Estimating the economic costs and benefits of pesticide use in apples. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests & Diseases, 1996, 4B1: 325-330. Webster, J. P. , Bowles, R. G. and Williams, N. T. 1999. Estimating the economic benefits of alternative pesticide usage scenarios: wheat production in the United Kingdom. Crop Protection 18: 83-89. S. 1997. Cassava mite control … at last. Biocont. News Inform. 18: 1N-2N. , Neuenschwander, P. R. 2001. Economics of biological control of cassava mealybug in Africa.
The use of microbial control agents is also possible, but is not favoured by the major regulations and standards. In the authors’ personal view, the use of microbial control agents can be preferable to the use of plant or mineral derived pesticides, in cases in which this causes less side-effects on the environment. In contrast, the use of genetically modified biological control agents is not allowed. Strategies for organic crop protection are available for a few crops, but are still lacking for many others.