By Dr Desmond S. T. Nicholl
Des Nicholl offers a brand new, totally revised, and increased version of his renowned undergraduate-level textbook. The booklet keeps a few of the beneficial properties of the unique version and nonetheless deals a concise technical advent to the topic of genetic engineering. it really is divided into 3 major sections: uncomplicated molecular biology, tools of gene manipulation, and sleek functions of genetic engineering. functions lined within the ebook comprise genomics, protein engineering, gene treatment, cloning, transgenic animals and vegetation, and bioethics. An creation to Genetic Engineering is key examining for undergraduate scholars of biotechnology, genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Genetic Engineering (Studies in Biology)
This method can detect as little as 1–5 ng of DNA, and may be used when UV-absorbing contaminants make spectrophotometric measurements impossible. Having determined the concentration of a solution of nucleic acid, any amount (in theory) may be dispensed by taking the appropriate volume of solution. In this way nanogram or picogram amounts may be dispensed with reasonable accuracy. 30 Working with nucleic acids Precipitation of nucleic acids is an essential technique that is used in a variety of applications.
3 Enzymes that modify the ends of DNA molecules The enzymes alkaline phosphatase, polynucleotide kinase and terminal transferase act on the termini of DNA molecules, and provide important functions that are used in a variety of ways. The phosphatase and kinase enzymes, as their names suggest, are involved in the removal or addition of phosphate groups. Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP; there is also a similar enzyme, calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase, CIP) removes phosphate groups from the 5Ј ends of DNA, leaving a 5Ј-OH group.
Transcription involves synthesis of an RNA from the DNA template provided by the non-coding strand of the transcriptional unit in question. The enzyme responsible is RNA polymerase (DNA-dependent RNA polymerase). In prokaryotes there is a single RNA polymerase enzyme, but in eukaryotes there are three types of RNA polymerase (I, II and III). These synthesise ribosomal, messenger and transfer/5 S ribosomal RNAs respectively. All RNA polymerases are large multisubunit proteins with relative molecular masses of around 500000.