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By Fasold R., Connor-Linton J.

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Microphones still convert the vibration of the membrane into variations in electrical current. But then computers convert a continuously varying sound wave into a series of numbers; this is called an analogto-digital (A-to-D) conversion. ) Once represented and stored in a digital format, sound files can be mathematically analyzed to separate out the different frequencies, and the results of the analysis displayed onscreen in various formats. 8. 8 Waveforms for the utterance A phoneme? 8A shows a waveform; the varying amplitude (corresponding to loudness) of the vibrations (on the y-axis) is plotted over time (on the xaxis).

Qxd 1/10/06 5:21 PM Page 29 pinnacle Raj01:Desktop Folder:CUUK414-fasold-sushil: The sounds of language double symbol ([aa], [pp]) or with a colon after the usual symbol ([a:], [p:]). ) For example, Japanese makes length distinctions in both vowels and consonants. ’ We will reserve the term “long vowel” to refer to distinctions such as those in Japanese, where everything about the long/short vowel pair is the same, except for length. Long consonants are known as geminates. English can create long consonants when two words come together – compare bookcase [bUkkes] to book ace [bUkes] or top part [tappart] to top art [tapart] – but we don’t distinguish long and short consonants within words.

The tongue tip moves forward to the upper teeth for the sounds at the beginning of thin and then. These dental fricatives are written [θ] (voiceless) and [ð] (voiced). The English sounds [t], [d], [n], and [l] are made with the tongue tip at the alveolar ridge, the alveolar place of articulation. The fricatives [s] and [z] are also alveolar. For these fricatives the tongue forms a narrow groove under the alveolar ridge like a spout that shoots a stream of air against the teeth, producing a high-pitched hissing sound.

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