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Extra resources for Analogy, Levelling, Markedness: Principles of Change in Phonology and Morphology
7. The innovations in the verb conjugation Not only are verbs subject to STEM-FORM, they even morphologically regulate the two stem shapes permitted by that constraint as follows: (20) a. Nonpast weak verb stems end in -VV, b. 12 The generalization of stem-final -w in strong verb forms like walw and blaggw mentioned in the preceding section thus obeys (20a) as well as the general STEM-FORM constraint. The first class of weak verbs, they'an- verbs, turns out to be no exception to the constraint that weak verbs end in /-VV/.
13. The fourth class (/fullnoo-/ 'fill') is not so relevant here because it actually inflects as a weak verb only the past tense. 14. I also assume tacitly that a FAITHFULNESS constraint prohibits mismatches of morphological bracketing between input and output, for example a realization of input [X][YZ] as output [XY][Z]. 15. g. *m, are prohibited by an undominated constraint, not included in the tables. Analogy as optimization 45 References Braune, Wilhelm and Ernst Ebbinghaus 1961 Gotische Grammatik.
6. Other free/bound alternation patterns occur in several unproductive declensions: r-stems (broobar-broopr), η-stems (guma - guman-, gumin-), suppletives :foon, watoo ~ (funin-, watin-). 7. Once again, this difference between masculine and neuter ya-stems is part of a larger pattern. Other noun paradigms in Gothic have split by gender in a similar way (for somewhat analogous reasons, which I will not go into here), most strikingly the /-stems, where masculines and and feminines have diverged in the singular.