By Paul R. Kroeger
Protecting either syntax (the constitution of words and sentences) and morphology (the constitution of words), this ebook equips scholars with the instruments and techniques had to research grammatical styles in any language. scholars are proven easy methods to use typical notational units equivalent to word constitution timber and word-formation principles, in addition to prose descriptions. Emphasis is put on evaluating the several grammatical platforms of the world's languages, and scholars are inspired to perform the analyses via a various diversity of challenge units and workouts.
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Extra info for Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)
The morphemes dis–, un–, -able, -ing, -ly, etc. are all bound, because they only occur as part of a larger word. The word chairman is an interesting example, because it contains two free morphemes. 13 14 Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction Consider the words trusted, trusting, trusty, distrust, mistrust, and trustworthy. Intuitively it is obvious that all these words are “related” to each other in some way, and that this relationship is based on the fact that they all contain the morpheme trust.
4) a the [tall bishop]’s hat the tall [bishop’s hat] b the woman on [the committee that I met with yesterday] the [woman on the committee] that I met with yesterday These phrases provide examples of structural ambiguity . This term means that the different interpretations of each phrase arise because we can assign different grammatical structures to the same string of words, even though none of the individual words is itself ambiguous in this context. Such examples demonstrate that words do form sub-groups (or constituents ) within a phrase or sentence, and that these groupings are often crucial in determining what the sentence means.
B [The new kittens] are in the barn. Second, the head may determine the number and type of other elements in the phrase. For example, we take the verb to be the head of a clause, and Constituent structure (as we will see in chapter 5) different verbs require different numbers and categories of phrases to occur with them in their clause. Dependents which are selected by the head word in this way are referred to as c o m p l e m e n t s. Thus subjects, objects, etc. are often referred to as complements of the verb.